Antidepressants

Antidepressants are medications prescribed to stabilize moods and treat symptoms of various forms of depression. Although antidepressants pose a lesser risk of addiction and abuse than some other medications, there is still a risk.

What Are Antidepressants?

Antidepressants help to correct the mood by balancing out neurotransmitters within the brain. People with certain mental disorders, such as bipolar or mood disorders, or people with depression are usually prescribed antidepressants to control symptoms. Many Antidepressants work by increasing serotonin, a natural chemical within the body, to stabilize the mood. It helps get rid of unwanted symptoms such as extreme sadness, difficulty falling and staying asleep, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms.

During 2011–2014, 12.7% of persons aged 12 and over, 8.6% of males, and 16.5% of females took antidepressant medication in the past month.

Long-term Antidepressants use is very common, yet many patients wonder how long they will have to take the medication for. Typically, doctors prescribe this type of medication for at least one year so the patient can get the full effect of the drug. Another reason is that depression can last from four to eight months, meaning you need enough time for the medication to battle depression and ease your body back to normal even after the depression has passed. After one year on the drug, it is normally a personal choice whether the patient feels they no longer need the medicine, or if they feel continuing it a little while longer may help their situation.

Types of Antidepressants

There are five types of Antidepressants.

Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors(SNRIs) and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

SNRIs and SSRIs both treat depression by using serotonin, but in different ways.

SNRIs not only treat depression but also treat other mood disorders and are even sometimes prescribed to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Anyone suffering from anxiety can also be prescribed these medications. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain to balance out any chemicals that are affecting the mood.

SSRIs will more likely be prescribed for depression since the side effects of these types of SSRIs are much less than other similar drugs. In order for the brain to have a clear pathway of sending and receiving signals such as pain and pleasure, etc. SSRIs will block the reuptake of serotonin, keeping the serotonin within the synapse, thus enabling a more balanced and steady mood from the better communication of messages within the body.

Both SNRIs and SSRIs do come with their own set of side effects that are very similar to each other. Many people only experience a few while others experience side effects more often. It depends on which antidepressant you take as well as your past medical history, and tolerance to similar drugs.

Side effects can include:

  • Low blood sugar
  • Rashes
  • Dry mouth
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Anxiety
  • Sedation
  • Weight loss

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Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)

TCAs are named after the three rings in their chemical makeup. This type of medication treats depression; however, it also treats fibromyalgia, a disease of the muscle that generates pain and fatigue.

Some side effects of taking Tricyclic Antidepressants are:

  • Seizures
  • Trouble falling and staying asleep
  • Anxiety
  • Hypertension
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Urinary retention

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

MAOIs are typically only prescribed after a patient has tried other Antidepressants with no efficient results. Because depression has a lack of serotonin, the job of these inhibitors is to block the brain enzyme Monoamine Oxidase from breaking down this neurotransmitter. By lessening the breakdown of this chemical, there will be more of an abundance of serotonin, meaning a greater chance at stabilizing mood within the individual.

Side effects of MAOIs include:

  • Blurry vision
  • Seizures
  • Headaches and dizziness
  • Hypertension
  • Weight loss and weight gain
  • Edema

Noradrenaline and Specific Serotoninergic Antidepressants (NASSAs)

The last type of Antidepressants are NASSAs. Because a depressed person’s brain has an inefficient level of monoamine neurotransmitters (which includes serotonin), NASSAs aim to increase concentration of these neurotransmitters dually with noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft. While the drug is increasing these chemicals, the brain is ultimately allowing more stabilized moods and a decrease of negative symptoms.

Side effects of NASSAs can include:

  • Sedation
  • Blurry vision
  • Dizziness and headaches
  • Weight gain
  • Dry mouth
  • Seizures
  • Fainting

Antidepressant Addiction

Antidepressant Addiction Is A Serious Problem, Especially For Those Who Have Long-Term PrescriptionsDoctors frequently misdiagnose sadness as depression, creating a chance for a patient to get addicted to a drug they never needed. Antidepressants are unlike other commonly abused drugs. They do not get you high and make you crave another dose. You won’t even feel the effects of Antidepressants until weeks later. A patient might think the drug is not working, influencing them to take more. This increases the chances of developing a tolerance to the drug right off the bat.

Those who do abuse Antidepressants to feel their effects often mix them with alcohol, an action never recommended. Although Antidepressants are not “uppers,” it is still rather dangerous to mix alcohol and Antidepressants because of the mix of their opposite effects on one another. Mixing alcohol with the medication can potentially make depression worse and can cause an overdose.

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Withdrawal Symptoms

The intensity of withdrawing from Antidepressants all depends on the type of pill and how long you have been using it. Withdrawing from the drug will not be as intense as other harsh drugs; however, you can still feel some uncomfortable side effects that can last a couple months such as anxiety, nightmares, and pain. If you have been taking the drug for a while and have been upping your doses, it is not recommended to stop suddenly. Generally, tapering off the drug, whereby doses are gradually reduced over time until usage is ceased completely, is recommended. If you have been taking it for a short time and realize you don’t need it to battle your depression anymore, talk to a doctor about stopping. You may experience less negative side effects after a shorter period on the drug.

Finding Treatment for Antidepressants

Antidepressants can be an effective way to overcome depression, but an addiction to Antidepressants could make everything worse. You may not know you are addicted until you find yourself upping your doses as a result of a built-up tolerance. If you find yourself struggling with depression and think you may be addicted to Antidepressants, contact an addiction specialist today to discover options for a brighter future.

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